function OUT = wlsFilter(IN, lambda, alpha, L)
%WLSFILTER Edge-preserving smoothing based on the weighted least squares(WLS)
% optimization framework, as described in Farbman, Fattal, Lischinski, and
% Szeliski, "Edge-Preserving Decompositions for Multi-Scale Tone and Detail
% Manipulation", ACM Transactions on Graphics, 27(3), August 2008.
%
% Given an input image IN, we seek a new image OUT, which, on the one hand,
% is as close as possible to IN, and, at the same time, is as smooth as
% possible everywhere, except across significant gradients in L.
%
%
% Input arguments:
% ----------------
% IN Input image (2-D, double, N-by-M matrix).
%
% lambda Balances between the data term and the smoothness
% term. Increasing lambda will produce smoother images.
% Default value is 1.0
%
% alpha Gives a degree of control over the affinities by non-
% lineary scaling the gradients. Increasing alpha will
% result in sharper preserved edges. Default value: 1.2
%
% L Source image for the affinity matrix. Same dimensions
% as the input image IN. Default: log(IN)
%
%
% Example
% -------
% RGB = imread('peppers.png');
% I = double(rgb2gray(RGB));
% I = I./max(I(:));
% res = wlsFilter(I, 0.5);
% figure, imshow(I), figure, imshow(res)
% res = wlsFilter(I, 2, 2);
% figure, imshow(res)
if(~exist('L', 'var')),
L = log(IN+eps);
end
if(~exist('alpha', 'var')),
alpha = 1.2;
end
if(~exist('lambda', 'var')),
lambda = 1;
end
smallNum = 0.0001;
[r,c] = size(IN);
k = r*c;
% Compute affinities between adjacent pixels based on gradients of L
dy = diff(L, 1, 1);
dy = -lambda./(abs(dy).^alpha + smallNum);
dy = padarray(dy, [1 0], 'post');
dy = dy(:);
dx = diff(L, 1, 2);
dx = -lambda./(abs(dx).^alpha + smallNum);
dx = padarray(dx, [0 1], 'post');
dx = dx(:);
% Construct a five-point spatially inhomogeneous Laplacian matrix
B(:,1) = dx;
B(:,2) = dy;
d = [-r,-1];
A = spdiags(B,d,k,k);
e = dx;
w = padarray(dx, r, 'pre'); w = w(1:end-r);
s = dy;
n = padarray(dy, 1, 'pre'); n = n(1:end-1);
D = 1-(e+w+s+n);
A = A + A' + spdiags(D, 0, k, k);
% Solve
OUT = A\IN(:);
OUT = reshape(OUT, r, c);